Micro biota are a set of bacteria in our human bodies which may also protect us against the development of type 1 diabetes, say Scientists.
The immune system in human bodies has developed various mechanisms to detect, defend against and even destroy micro-organisms i.e. to combat pathogens.
These mechanisms include the antimicrobial peptides and other natural proteins that destroy pathogenic bacteria by disrupting their cellular membranes. Apart from their protective function, these peptides have also exhibited immunoregulatory abilities against several autoimmune diseases.
These mechanisms are not only produced by cells whose functions are immune-related but also by cells whose functions not immune related.
Diabetes is associated with deficiency of antimicrobial peptides called cathelicidins.
The production of these peptides is controlled by short-chain fatty acids produced by gut bacteria.
There is an existing hypothesis that juvenile diabetes (type 1) is an autoimmune disease where certain cells in the immune system attack beta cells in the pancreas thus impairing the secretion of insulin. It is also suspected that cathelicidins may be involved in the control of type 1 diabetes.
A research team comprising of Inserm, Paris Descartes University and the CNRS collaborating with teams from China and Sweden, all coordinated by Julien Diana are studying the possibility that this cathelicidin deficiency may be the cause of diabetics or vice versa.
Julien Diana explains that injecting cathelicidins in mice during the study, inhibited the development of pancreatic inflammation and, as such, suppressed the development of the autoimmune disease, diabetes type 1.
During research, transferring part of the gut bacteria from healthy mice to diabetic mice re-established a normal level of cathelicidin. As a bonus, the transfer of these micro-organisms reduced the occurrence of diabetes.