Type 2 diabetes, can lead to short and long term complications. If effectively managed with focus on diet, exercise, medication and other lifestyle changes then these complications can be prevented.
Short-term complications of type 2 diabetes are hypoglycemia (very low blood glucose) and hyperglycemia (very high blood glucose).
Long-term complications of type 2 diabetes are categorized into micro vascular v/s macro vascular complications.
Microvascular complications result from consistent high blood glucose levels that damage small blood vessels. This specifically affects the eyes (diabetic retinopathy), kidneys (nephropathy) and nerves (neuropathy).
Macrovascular complications occur when the large blood vessels are damaged, resulting in buildup of plaque which typically affects the heart, brain and blood vessels. This could result in cardiovascular diseases which include – coronary artery disease with chest pain (angina), heart attack, stroke, narrowing of arteries (atherosclerosis) and high blood pressure.
Sexual dysfunction is often seen in diabetic men and women. Male diabetics, especially those who smoke tend to suffer from nerve and blood vessel damage which can lead to erection problems. Women with diabetes may experience a reduced sex drive, less pleasure from sex, vaginal dryness etc.
Pregnant women with diabetes have a higher risk of miscarriage and stillbirth. If blood glucose level isn’t carefully monitored during the initial stages of pregnancy, there’s also a higher risk of the baby developing a birth defect.
So, as seen if diabetes isn’t treated, it can lead to a number of complications. These complications develop over many years and they all relate to how blood glucose levels can affect blood vessels. Over time, high blood glucose can damage the body’s blood vessels, both tiny and large, nerves and organs. Even a mildly raised glucose level that doesn’t cause any symptoms can also have long-term damaging effects.
E134 -Type 2 diabetes complications – www.diabetic.today