Even when there is no food intake, the liver creates blood sugar to prevent blood sugar from falling below the acceptable levels. The body does this in both diabetic and non-diabetic persons. This is medically termed as “GLUCONEOGENESIS”. When the body is unable to undertake this process, it’s common to have high blood sugar in the morning.
In non- diabetic people, enough insulin is produced by the pancreas to control the extent to which gluconeogenesis occurs and thus, keeps the glycemic index within normal range. If during gluconeogenesis, the blood sugar rises above the normal in a non-diabetic, the pancreas release the extra insulin required and the gluconeogenesis stops.
In diabetic persons, the absence of insulin itself, or the body’s resistance of the insulin action prevents the body from effectively acting against excessive gluconeogenesis and thus control the quantity of sugar in the blood. This causes people with diabetes to have high blood sugar in the morning.